This report gives an overview of various Machine Learning algorithms and compare their efficiencies. Also, it gives an insight into various approaches which can be adopted to handle missing data values and confers the impact of discretisation on various machine learning techiques.
The proof of the Dual State Lemma in Chapter 2.3 of Gilbert and Porter's Knots and Surfaces has some problems with the exposition and a critical typo. This document reworks the proof to make it more correct and comprehensible. (This material starts on page 33.)
We are given spans of the target text which align to concepts in the AMR graph.These alignment do not cover every token in the target sentnce. Typically function words are not aligned to any graph fragment. Next, we obtain word alignments between the target sentence and source sentence. Since we have word alignments between target and source, and phrase alignments between target and AMR graph, we must convert the word alingments into phrase alignments. The phrases on the source side will then be projected to the AMR concepts via the target sentence